Every problem in the universe, no matter how big, small, young or old, consists of: atom..
Each of these building blocks consists of a positively charged nucleus composed of protons and neutrons and a negatively charged orbital electron. The number of protons, neutrons, and electrons that an atom has determines which element the atom belongs to. Periodic table It affects the reaction with other surrounding atoms. Everything you see around you is just a composition of different atoms that interact in a unique way.
So, if everything is made up of atoms, do we know how many atoms there are in the universe?
Relation: Why does outer space look black?
Starting from “small”, the average human body has about 7 octillions, or 7×10 ^ 27 (7 followed by 27 zeros) atoms. Parents.. Given this huge number of atoms alone, you may find it impossible to determine how many atoms are in the entire universe. And you’re right: we don’t know how big the whole universe really is, so we can’t know how many atoms are in it.
However, it is possible to roughly calculate how many atoms there are. Observable The Universe — a part of the universe that we can see and study — uses some cosmological assumptions and a little math.
The universe was created inside big Bang 13.8 billion years ago. When it exploded to exist, from a single point of infinite mass and temperature, the universe began to expand outwards and has not stopped since then.
The universe is 13.8 billion years old, and the observable universe extends as far from us as light can move in the time since the universe was born, so the observable universe is 13.8 billion in all directions. You might think that only light-years are growing. But that is not the case, as the universe is constantly expanding.When observing far away Galaxy Or a star, what we are actually seeing is where it first emitted light. But by the time the light reaches us, the galaxies and stars are farther than we saw. You can use the cosmic microwave background to find out how fast the universe is expanding. Its speed is constant, which is the best guess of current scientists (although some scientists think it may be slowing down). In short, the observable universe actually stretches 46 billion light-years in all directions, according to Live Science’s sister site. Space.com..
However, knowing the size of the observable universe does not tell us everything we know about the number of atoms in it. You also need to know how many problems there are.
However, matter is not the only thing in the universe. In fact, it occupies only about 5% of the universe. NASA..The rest consists of Dark energy And Dark matter, But you don’t have to worry about them because of this mystery because they are not composed of atoms.
Relation: What happens in the intergalactic space?
by Einstein The well-known E = mc ^ 2 equation, energy and mass, or matter is interchangeable, so matter can be created from or converted into energy. But, space From the scale of the universe, it can be inferred that the amount of matter produced and the amount of non-produced matter cancel each other out. This means that matter is finite. Therefore, there are the same number of atoms in the observable universe as before. Scientific American.. This is important because our picture of the observable universe is not a single snapshot of time.
According to our observations of the known universe, the laws of physics that govern it are the same everywhere. Combined with the assumption that the expansion of the universe is constant, this means that on a large scale, matter is evenly distributed throughout the universe. This is a concept known as the Cosmological Principle. In other words, no realm of the universe is more important than the others. This idea allows scientists to accurately estimate the number of observable stars and galaxies in the universe. This is convenient because most of the atoms are in the stars.
Simplify the equation
Knowing the size of the observable universe and its matter being evenly and finitely distributed throughout the universe makes it much easier to calculate the number of atoms. However, some more assumptions need to be made before disassembling the calculator.
First, we need to assume that not all atoms are contained in a star, but they are contained in a star. Unfortunately, the number of planets, satellites, and cosmic rocks in the observable universe is far less accurate than stars. That is, it is difficult to add them to the equation. However, since most of the atoms in the universe are contained in the stars, we can get a good estimate of the number of atoms in the universe by knowing the number of atoms in the star and ignoring everything else. You can get it.
Second, all the atoms in the universe hydrogen Although not an atom. According to the report, hydrogen atoms make up about 90% of all atoms in the universe. Los Alamos National Laboratory, And an even higher percentage of the star atoms we are focusing on. As you can see, the calculation is also very easy.
Now it’s time to do math.
To calculate the number of observable atoms in the universe, we need to know its mass. In other words, you need to find out the number of stars. There are about 10 ^ 11 to 10 ^ 12 galaxies in the observable universe, and each galaxy contains 10 ^ 11 to 10 ^ 12 stars. European Space Agency.. This will give you 10 ^ 22 to 10 ^ 24 stars. For the purposes of this calculation, we can say that there are 10 ^ 23 stars in the observable universe. Of course, this is the best guess. Galaxyes vary in size and number of stars, but they cannot be counted individually, so we need to do this for now.
On average, stars weigh about 2.2×10 ^ 32 pounds (10 ^ 32 kilograms), according to the report. Science ABC, This means that the mass of the universe is about 2.2×10 ^ 55 pounds (10 ^ 55 kilograms). Now that we know the mass or quantity of the substance, we need to find out how many atoms fit in it. According to, on average, each gram of substance has about 10 ^ 24 protons. Fermilab, National Institute for Particle Physics, Illinois. That is, each hydrogen atom has only one proton, which is the same as the number of hydrogen atoms (so why did you previously assume for hydrogen atoms?).
This creates 10 ^ 82 atoms in the observable universe. Putting this in context, it is 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms.
This number is only a rough guess based on some estimates and assumptions. However, given our current understanding of the observable universe, it is unlikely to be far off the mark.
Originally published in Live Science.